HPV vaccination helps reduce the chances of getting cervical cancer. It works by preventing infection with specific types of HPV targeted by the vaccines. However, HPV vaccination does not substitute for routine cervical cancer screening. Vaccinated women should still go for regular pap smear once every three years for early detection of cervical cancer.
About HPV and its link with Cervical Cancer
What is HPV?
Risk factors for HPV infection include:
How is HPV transmitted?
What are the signs or symptoms of HPV infection?
Can HPV be treated?
How is HPV related to cervical cancer?
How can I best protect myself against cervical cancer?
Where can I go for a Pap smear?
About HPV vaccination
What is HPV vaccination?
What are the different HPV vaccines currently available in Singapore?
Protect against the following HPV sub-types 6, 11, 16, 18
Vaccination schedule 0,2 and 6 months
Approved indications: Prevention of cervical cancer, vulvar cancer, vaginal cancer and genital warts
Approved age for use: Girls and women aged 9 to 26 years, or advised by your doctor.
Protect against the following HPV sub-types 16, 18
Vaccination schedule 0, 1 and 6 months, or as advised by your doctor.
Approved indications: Prevention of cervical cancer
Approved age for use: Girls and women aged 9 to 25 years, or advised by your doctor.
Who is the vaccine for?
Who should NOT be vaccinated?
Why is the HPV vaccines recommended for females aged 9 to 26 years old?
Are HPV vaccines compulsory?
How long does the protection last?
Are the vaccines safe and effective?
What are the common side effects of HPV vaccines?
Are HPV vaccines 100% effective in preventing cervical cancer?
I ve been vaccinated. Must I still go for a Pap smear?
I m pregnant / breastfeeding. Should I be vaccinated?
I have a young daughter. Should she be vaccinated? When should she receive the vaccination?
I was diagnosed with a cervical abnormality that my doctor said may lead to cervical cancer (e.g. 'cervical intraepithelial neoplasia' or CIN). Should I get the HPV vaccination?
About Medisave use for HPV vaccination
Can Medisave be used to pay for the HPV Vaccination?
What happens if one do not have sufficient money in their medisave accounts to pay for the vaccines, is there help available?
A test using only about three drops of blood will determine in just half an hour or less if you have dengue. The benefit of the dengue diagnostic kit is the rapid and reliable results obtained
The Communicable Disease Centre (CDC) at Tan Tock Seng Hospital has partnered with clinics in Singapore to roll out this test kit since 2012, as part of a move to establish a primary care network to fight infectious diseases.
The test kit, called SD Dengue Duo, can be easily used by doctors or nurses in the clinic. They just need a pinprick of blood from patients, who will be given the result in 20 to 30 minutes.
A study led by the CDC in 2012 shows fewer than half of doctors routinely order diagnostic tests when they suspect someone has dengue. Those who do typically send blood samples to laboratories for tests which can take about a day.
But Dengue Duo takes just a fraction of this time and is "very comparable" in accuracy, said Professor Leo, adding that the CDC does not have a stake in the company.
The CDC tested the kit on 246 adults from October 2011 to May 2012. It found the kit had a sensitivity of 94 per cent and specificity of 92 per cent.
The former measures a test's ability to correctly identify a diseased person, while the latter measures its ability to correctly identify a disease-free person.
The downside of clinical diagnosis is that early dengue symptoms such as fever and muscle aches can be hard to distinguish from other causes, said Prof Leo. Doctors can be more confident the patient has dengue only from the fourth day, when other signs appear.
Prof Leo is aiming to form a network of GPs around the island to partner the CDC in its research and fight against diseases. "We are getting ourselves ready not only for dengue but perhaps in the future for other infectious diseases as well."
She also wants to spread the message of early diagnosis as "we are beginning to see treatment interventions becoming available".
Studies are also being done on antibodies for the two most prevalent types of dengue here.
Adapted from source: The Straits Times - (22 November 2012)
Influenza is a respiratory illness which is highly contagious. It is a serious condition because the infection, at times, can lead to complications and even death. Those who are at risk of serious flu complications like older people, young children and people with certain chronic conditions should get vaccinated.The best way to prevent the flu is by getting a flu vaccination each year.
Influenza, commonly known as the "flu", is a contagious disease that can affect anyone including healthy people. It attacks the respiratory tract in humans (nose, throat, and lungs), causing inflammation of the mucous membranes.
It can be spread when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or speaks. The flu viruses are transmitted into the air through droplets and other people breathe in the viruses. When these viruses enter the nose, throat, or lungs of a person, they begin to multiply, causing symptoms of the flu. The viruses can also be spread indirectly when a person touches a surface with flu viruses on it (for example, a door knob) and then touches his or her nose or mouth. Transmission can also occur when an infected person shares food with others during mealtime without a serving spoon.
Causes & risk factors
Influenza is caused by the flu virus which has 3 main types: flu A, flu B and flu C. Flu A and flu B are responsible for seasonal outbreaks and epidemics. Between the two types, Flu A causes more severe cases and complications like pneumonia especially in the elderly, the very young (5 years and below) and those with chronic conditions.
Signs & symptomsFlu symptoms usually come suddenly which include high fever, sore throat, coughing, headache, muscle aches, and stuffy nose.
Other symptoms may include sneezing, nasal discharge, loss of appetite, fatigue, weakness, chills, and stomach symptoms.
ComplicationsA severe case of influenza can lead to pneumonia and other complications such as bronchitis, sinusitis, ear infection and meningitis (inflammation of the lining that covers the brain).
Who is more likely to develop complications from an influenza infection?
Persons who get the flu virus may have different reactions to the illness. Some groups of people are at high risk to develop complications which could lead to death. Older people, young children, people with weakened immune system, or those with heart and lung diseases are more likely to develop serious complications due to an attack of flu.
The following are the groups at risk for complications related with influenza infection.
There are antiviral medications available to treat flu. These medications act to decrease the ability of flu viruses to reproduce. To be effective, flu antiviral drugs should be taken within first 2 days after the person gets sick. They may also help reduce the severity of flu symptoms and help the person with flu recover faster by few days. It is important to remember that these flu antiviral medications are not a substitute for flu vaccination. Getting a flu vaccine yearly is still the best way to protect you from the flu.
People who develop influenza-like symptoms should seek medical attention promptly. Strenuous physical activities like running and jogging should be avoided during the illness until complete recovery. They are advised not to go to work or school and avoid crowded places to minimise the transmission of the infection to others.
PreventionThere are many ways to prevent the spread of flu and to protect yourself against this infection. Assess the situation you are in. Do you belong to the group at risk of developing influenza-related complications? Are you regularly exposed to those at risk of complications from flu? Flu vaccination may be warranted and is the best protection for you against the flu.
Where flu vaccine availability is limited, vaccination is not required for the general population. However, everyone can practise healthy habits, good personal hygiene and be socially responsible.
Lead a healthy lifestyle
Influenza vaccination, or flu vaccination for short, is most beneficial for those who have high chance of developing complications (see list above) from an influenza infection. Unless advised otherwise by your doctor, it is recommended that you go for flu vaccination even if you are healthy, especially if you live with or take care of the following people:
It is also advisable to get flu vaccination if you are a healthcare worker as you may regularly be exposed to different flu viruses. You will also be protecting your patients by preventing the spread of the virus to them.
The flu vaccination takes effect in about 2 weeks, thus it’s better to get vaccinated early before flu season starts. In Singapore, the flu season generally occurs between December and February. Another peak season is from May to July.
Flu vaccines are offered in many locations, including hospitals, polyclinics, GP clinics and even schools. A flu vaccine can cost between $20 to $30.
Some minor side effects can be associated with flu vaccination. They are:
If these problems occur, they begin soon after the shot and usually last 1 to 2 days. However, on rare occasions, flu vaccination can cause serious problems, such as severe allergic reactions. As not everyone is suitable for flu vaccination, you should consult your doctor before getting vaccinated.
A yearly vaccination is recommended as flu viruses are constantly changing, and your body’s immunity to influenza viruses may decline over time. Thus, getting vaccinated every year provides the best protection against influenza.
Note: This flu vaccine does not give protection against bird flu or the H7N9. Currently, there is no vaccine for this strain.
Use of Medisave
Medisave up to $400 per year per account can be used for Influenza vaccinations for persons with higher risk of developing influenza-related complications and severe pneumococcal disease respectively.
(For vaccinations received on or after 1 Jan 2014)
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